Hyperemesis gravidarum

Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a complication of pregnancy that is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting such that weight loss and dehydration occurs. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting several times a day and feeling faint. It is more severe than morning sickness. Often symptoms get better after the 20th week of pregnancy but may last the entire pregnancy.

The exact cause of hyperemesis gravidarum is not known. Risk factors include the first pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, obesity, prior or family history of hyperemesis gravidarum, trophoblastic disorder, and a history of a eating disorder. The diagnosis is usually made based on the signs and symptoms. It has been technically defined as more than three episodes of vomiting per day such that weight loss of 5% or three kilograms has occurred and ketones are present in the urine.

Treatment includes drinking fluids and a bland diet.Hospitalization may be required.Hyperemesis gravidarum is estimated to affect 0.3–2.0% of pregnant women. Those affected have a low risk of miscarriage but a higher risk of premature birth.

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